orthopedic specialists of seattle
Grant H. Garcia, MD

Grant H. Garcia, MD Orthopedic Surgeon & Sports Medicine Specialist View Profile

Grant H. Garcia, MD

Grant H. Garcia, MD Orthopedic Surgeon & Sports Medicine Specialist View Doctor Profile


Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a reliable option to treat knee instability in patients over 50 years old

Purpose: To evaluate return to sport and clinical outcomes with at least 2 years followup after arthroscopic reconstruction ACL in population over 50 years-old.

Does Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Protect the Meniscus and Its Repair? A Systematic Review

Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear and meniscal injury often co-occur. The protective effect of early ACL reconstruction (ACLR) on meniscal injury and its repair is not clear. Critical literature review can support or change clinical strategies and identify gaps in the available evidence.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Patients Older Than 50 Years: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: There is no consensus regarding the best treatment approach for middle-aged patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Chronic ACL-deficient knees are often associated with instability as well as secondary meniscal and cartilage lesions.

Healing Status of Meniscal Ramp Lesion Affects Anterior Knee Stability After ACL Reconstruction

BACKGROUND: Although the biomechanical importance of the ramp lesion in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee has been demonstrated, there is no clear consensus on the appropriate treatment for ramp lesions during ACL reconstruction.

Partial Lateral Meniscectomy Affects Knee Stability Even in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Intact Knees.

BACKGROUND: The effects of a partial lateral meniscectomy on knee kinematics and forces in the lateral meniscus are critical to understand. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of varying sizes of partial lateral meniscectomies of the posterior horn and a total lateral meniscectomy on knee kinematics and resultant forces in the lateral meniscus.

Lateral Extra-articular Tenodesis Reduces Failure of Hamstring Tendon Autograft Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: 2-Year Outcomes From the STABILITY Study Randomized Clinical Trial.

BACKGROUND: Persistent anterolateral rotatory laxity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) has been correlated with poor clinical outcomes and graft failure.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in High School and College-Aged Athletes: Does Autograft Choice Influence Anterior Cruciate Ligament Revision Rates?

BACKGROUND: Physicians' and patients' decision-making process between bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) and hamstring tendon autografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) may be influenced by a variety of factors in the young, active athlete.

Outcomes of Quadriceps Tendon With Patellar Bone Block Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Adolescent Patients With a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up.

BACKGROUND: The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the adolescent population is increasing. The quadriceps tendon-patellar bone autograft (QPA) has been established as a reliable graft choice for ACL reconstruction in the adult population.

Risk of Secondary ACL Injuryin Adolescents Prescribed FunctionalBracing After ACL Reconstruction

Background:There is a high incidence of a secondary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in unbraced adolescent athletes.Little is known about the effect of functional bracing with regard to the risk of secondary ACL injuries among adolescents.

Transphyseal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Skeletally Immature

BACKGROUND: It is unclear what the optimal graft choice is for performing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in askeletally immature patient.

Complications After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Their Relation to the Type of Graft: A Prospective Study of 958 Cases

BACKGROUND: Complications and adverse events after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are well known, but they have been underestimated in previous studies.

Knee Extension Does Not Reliably ReduceAcute Type II Tibial Spine Fractures

Background: Type II tibial spine avulsion (TSA) fractures have traditionally been managed by first attempting to achieve closedreduction with extension and immobilization, with surgical indications reserved for those who fail to reduce within 3 mm. However,the frequency with which appropriate reduction can be achieved is largely unknown.

Compliance in post-operative rehabilitation is a key factor for return to sport after revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

PURPOSE: To assess the rate of return to sport (RTS) following revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (ACLR) in a rehabilitation-based cohort of patients. A secondary goal of the study was to evaluate the association between compliance in post-operative rehabilitation and RTS rate.

Effect of Delayed Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction on Medial Compartment Cartilage and Meniscal Health

Background: The time required to develop a secondary cartilage or meniscal injury in the medial compartment after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is not well understood.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Young Female Athletes: Patellar Versus Hamstring Tendon Autografts.

Backgroung: Female athletes are 2 to 8 times more prone to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture than males. Furthermore, reinjury to the ipsilateral or contralateral knee can occur in >20% of athletes. Female sex and younger age are known risk factors for graft failure. The optimal graft choice for young females remains unknown and poorly studied.

Ramp Lesions of the Medial Meniscus in Patients Undergoing Primary and Revision ACL Reconstruction: Prevalence and Risk Factors.

Backgroung: Ramp lesions are peripheral tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus that involve the meniscocapsular attachments or red-red zone and typically occur in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures.

A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Patellar Tendon, Hamstring Tendon, and Double-Bundle ACL Reconstructions: Patient-Reported and Clinical Outcomes at 5-Year Follow-up

Backgroung: At 5 years, we found no significant difference in the quality-of-life outcome among the patellar tendon, hamstring tendon, and double-bundle techniques for ACL reconstruction. Significantly more patients in the hamstring tendon and double-bundle groups experienced traumatic graft reinjury compared with the patellar tendon group. There was a trend toward a higher percentage with normal and nearly normal IKDC grades in the patellar tendon group compared with hamstring tendon and double-bundle groups.

Effect of Delayed Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction on Medial Compartment Cartilage and Meniscal Health.

Purpose: To determine the association between time delay until ACL reconstruction and the presence of medial compartment Outerbridge grade 3 or 4 chondral injury or medial meniscal tear requiring treatment.

Quadriceps Recovery After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Quadriceps Tendon Versus Patellar Tendon Autografts.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare quadriceps recovery and functional outcomes in patients with QT versus bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autografts. The hypothesis was that those with QT autografts would demonstrate superior outcomes.

Outcomes of Grade III Medial Collateral Ligament Injuries Treated Concurrently With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Multicenter Study.

PURPOSE: To evaluate differences in repair and nonoperatively managed grade III medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.

Post-traumatic osteoarthritis diagnosed within 5 years following ACL reconstruction.

PURPOSE: The purpose was to calculate the incidence of osteoarthritis in individuals following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (ACLR) in a large, national database and to examine the risk factors associated with OA development.

Age over 50 years is not a contraindication for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

PURPOSE: To report clinical and functional results of ACL reconstruction in patients over 50 years old and investigate the influence of surgery on osteoarthritis progression in this cohort of patients.

Revision ACL reconstruction using quadriceps or hamstring autografts leads to similar results after 4 years: good objective stability but low rate of return to pre-injury sport level.

PURPOSE: Due to the increased importance of revision ACL reconstruction, this study aims to evaluate the outcome 4 years after the surgery, compare two revision strategies and identify factors that influence the results.

Meniscal and Chondral Pathology Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures are commonly associated with meniscal and articular cartilage injuries, and the presence of these defects influences both short- and long-term outcomes. Multiple variables are predictive of this pathology including time from injury, age, and sex. Revision ACL reconstructions demonstrate higher rates of chondral injury than primary reconstructions. Menisci are important secondary stabilizers of the knee in the setting of ACL deficiency, and specific tear types are more consistently associated with ACL injury.

Delayed ACL Reconstruction in Patients ≥40 Years of Age Is Associated With Increased Risk of Medial Meniscal Injury at 1 Year.

Purpose: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears in the pediatric and young adult ACL-deficient knee are often associated with meniscal or chondral injury with delayed time to surgery. The incidence of ACL reconstruction performed in patients aged ≥40 years is rising, and it is unclear if delayed surgery in this cohort similarly affects the health of the meniscus and cartilage.

Patients older than 50 years had similar results of knee strength and anteroposterior stability after ACL reconstruction compared to younger patients.

Purpose: To evaluate knee strength, ligament stability, and functional outcomes in patients older than 50 years who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, and to compare these results with those obtained from a younger patient group (<40 years).

Relationship Between Time to ACL Reconstruction and Presence of Adverse Changes in the Knee at the Time of Reconstruction.

Background: Treatment of patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries is often complicated by secondary damage to the meniscus and cartilage.

Low Rates of Return to Preinjury Sport After Bilateral Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

Background: Patients with bilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries tend to report worse results in terms of knee function and quality of life as compared with those with unilateral injury. There are limited data regarding return to preinjury sport in this group.

Lateral Meniscal Posterior Root Repair With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Better Restores Knee Stability.

Background: The effect of lateral meniscal posterior root tear and repair-commonly seen in clinical practice in the setting of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction-is not known.

Epidemiological Evaluation of Meniscal Ramp Lesions in 3214 Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Injured Knees From the SANTI Study Group Database: A Risk Factor Analysis and Study of Secondary Meniscectomy Rates Following 769 Ramp Repairs.

Background: Ramp lesions are characterized by disruption of the peripheral meniscocapsular attachments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Ramp repair performed at the time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has been shown to improve knee biomechanics.

Preoperative and Intraoperative Predictors of Long-Term Acceptable Knee Function and Osteoarthritis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: An Analysis Based on 2 Randomized Controlled Trials.

Purpose: To determine preoperative predictors of long-term acceptable knee function and the development of osteoarthritis (OA) in long-term follow-up after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.

Bone–Patellar Tendon–Bone Versus Hamstring Tendon Autografts for Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Background: Previous meta-analyses have compared bone–patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) with hamstring tendon (HT) autografts for primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR).

Bone–patellar tendon–bone autograft could be recommended as a superior graft to hamstring autograft for ACL reconstruction in patients with generalized joint laxity: 2- and 5-year follow-up study

Purpose The present study aimed to compare 2- and 5-year outcomes of ACL reconstruction between patients with and without generalized joint laxity and to perform comparative evaluation between two types of grafts used for ACL reconstruction in patients with generalized joint laxity.

Over 90 % of children and adolescents return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review and metaanalysis

Purpose To evaluate the rate at which children and adolescent athletes return to sporting activities after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.

Quad Tendon Systematic Review

Purpose:To systematically review the current evidence to ascertain whether quadriceps tendon autograft (QT) is a viable option in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Quadriceps Tendon Autograft in Anterior CruciateLigament Reconstruction:

Purpose:To systematically review the current evidence to ascertain whether quadriceps tendon autograft (QT) is a viable option in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  • Brown University
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • Cornell University
  • Hospital for Special Surgery
  • Rush University Medical Center
  • American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine
  • American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
  • American Association of Nurse Anesthetists